Egypt Timeline – 28 November 2011- 24 January 2015

Compiled by Aliya Alwi and Austin Mackell as supporting material for the story “What Went Wrong With Egypt’s Revolution”,

28 November 2011- Egypt’s first post-revolution parliamentary elections begin. The Muslim Brotherhood wins a plurality. They will go on to form a governing majority in coalition with more hardline Islamists, Al Noor Party. Their first order of business is to appoint a constituent assembly to write Egypt’s new constitution.

10 April 2012 – First constituent assembly dissolved “unrepresentative” despite the proportions from different political factions closely correlating with the percentages elected to parliament.

23 May 2012 – Voting starts in presidential elections. A field of 13 is narrowed to two, Mohammad Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party, and Ahmed Shafik, the last prime-minister under Mubarak. Hamdeen Sabahi, a Nasserist candidate comes third, just ahead of moderate Islamist Abdol Fotouh.

7 June 2012 – Agreement on second constituent assembly reached. Fresh court cases challenging its legitimacy begins soon after.

14 June 2012 – Supreme court orders the dissolution of the parliament over a technicality to do with the mixed system of party lists and individual candidates.

15 June 2012 – The military backs the constitutional court in shutting down the parliament and awards itself sweeping powers over matters of war, the national budget and legislative powers.

16-17 June 2012 – Run off between Morsi and Shafiq. Morsi wins with just over 51 percent of the votes.

30 June 2012 – Morsi takes office.

2 June 2012 – Hosni Mubarak, the dictatorial president who had ruled for more than 30 years before being forced from power by the revolution in 2011, is sentenced to life in prison over involvement in the deaths of protesters.

8 July 2012 – Morsi recalls dissolved parliament – sets fresh parliamentary elections for 60 days after adoption of new constitution. The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) meets following announcement, but makes no public reply.

9 July 2012 – Supreme Court rejects Morsi’s Decree. Maintains their position that Parliament is invalid.

10 July 2012 – Parliament meets anyhow. Votes to take the issue to the court of Cassation. Protesters Gather outside Supreme Court.

11 July 2012 – Morsi cedes to court decision. Seeks Dialogue with opponents within judiciary and more broadly.

14 July 2012 – Court of Cassation decrees it will not review Supreme Court’s decision – effectively upholding the dissolution of parliament.

2 August 2012 – Morsi’s cabinet, headed by Prime Minister Hesham Kandil is sworn in. Prominent non-Islamist figures like Hamdeen Sabbahi refuse positions in the government.

5 August 2012 – An armed group operating around the Israel-Egypt border region attacks the Egyptian Army, kills 16 soldiers and steals two armored vehicles, initiating a period of increased military action across the restive Sinai peninsula.

12 August 2012 – Morsi, referring to the attack, requests and receives the retirements of the defense minister and head of SCAF Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi and his number two, Sami Anan. He names the head of military intelligence, General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi as Defense minister. Morsi also revoked the constitutional declaration that SCAF had issued at the time of his election victory, claiming the broad powers it awarded them for himself until the constitution was passed and a new parliament elected.

23 August 2012 – Morsi uses the legislative power he claimed in the decree to pass a law banning pretrial detention of journalists.

23 September 2012 – Supreme Administrative Court overturns the “Political Isolation Law” allowing members of the National Democratic Party, which dominated Egyptian politics during the dictatorship, to run in elections.

8 October 2012 – Morsi orders pardon for anyone with convictions of deeds ̈committed with the aim of supporting the revolution and bringing about its objectives ̈between January 25 – June 30, 2012, with the exception of first degree murder.

9 October 2012 – Administrative court postpones a verdict on constituent assembly, one of many such delays and transfers of the case.

10 October 2012 – Prosecutor general Abdelmeguid Mahmoud fails to get a conviction on alleged instigators of “Battle of the Camels.”

11 October 2012 – Morsi requests Mahmoud to leave his position, offers him ambassadorship to the Vatican.

12 October 2012 – Clashes erupt in Tahrir between pro and anti-Morsi forces.

13 October 2012 – Morsi backs down and Mahmoud keeps his job.

18-21 November 2012 – Secular groups walk out of constituent assembly complaining of the

Islamist majority dominating the process / anti-Morsi protests.

22 November 2012 – Morsi issues constitutional declaration reclaiming for the presidency the powers claimed by the military at their declaration. The decree also dismisses top prosecutor Abdelmeguid Mahmoud replacing him with Talaat Ibrahim Abdallah, and protected all of Morsi’s decisions from any form of judicial review until after the referendum on the constitution. Morsi said this was necessary to stop the dissolution of the second constituent assembly. The decree also stated that all investigations into the killing of protesters or the use of violence against them will be re-conducted.

23 November 2012 – Clashes erupt between pro and anti morsi forces and MB HQ is burnt down

24 November 2012 – Supreme judicial council criticizes morsi, and calls for strike of all judges.

25 November 2012 – Stock market plunges 10 percent in first trading session since Morsi’s November 22 declaration. Some judges start strike.

30 November 2012 – Constitution completed and voted on by remaining members of constituent assembly as this happens Muslim Brotherhood offices in Damanhour, Alexandria, Suez and Cairo are attacked. In Damanhour a 15 year old boy is killed after a hit in the head with a club by anti-Morsi forces who stormed the offices there. The majority killed in these ongoing clashes will be from the Muslim Brotherhood’s side.

1December 2012 – Morsi sets date for constitutional referendum, mass rallies held in support of the president.

4-7 December 2012 – Protests outside presidential palace against constitutional referendum become the scene of violent clashes. Army is deployed, Morsi criticizes the opposition for trying to incite violence, and calls for dialogue, Morsi ́s family evacuates their home, outside Cairo. It is attacked the next day. Final tally is 8 Brotherhood supporters dead, 2 anti-Brotherhood dead.

15 and 22 December 2012 – Voting is held for constitutional referendum. It passes with 63 percent.

25 January 2013 – Mass rallies are held. 5 people killed in Suez, 4 protesters and 1 security personnel.

29 January 2013 – After continuing deadly unrest Egypt’s defense minister Sisi, presents himself as a middle man and says that both parties need to reign in their disagreement.

26 April 2013 – Tamarod movement begins. Its name means “rebel” in Arabic. They begin collecting signatures asking Morsi to leave office and hold early elections.

30 June 2013 – Protests called by Tamarod, which claims to have amassed 22 million signatures (but refuses independent verification) are held across the country. The mass protests are comparable to anything in Egypt’s history. Large pro-Morsi rallies also held.

1 July 2013 – Ultimatum issued by Sisi, Cairo Headquarters of Muslim Brotherhood attacked and burned.

2 July 2013 – Presidency rejects ultimatum, court of cassation orders reinstatement of former general prosecutor Abdelmeguid Mahmoud, dismissed by Morsi.

3 July 2013 – Unknown gunmen open fire on pro-Morsi rally killing at least 16 people as Army deadline passes. Morsi is taken into custody. Four Islamist TV channels go off air and staff members are reportedly arrested.

4 July 2013 – Adly Mansour, head of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt, sworn in as interim president. Al Jazeera Mubashr offices raided by the military. Staff temporarily locked inside.

5 July 2013 – Muslim Brotherhood members and supporters participate in “Friday of Rejection” rallies across the country. At least 36 people are killed and more than 1,000 are injured. Palestinian officials in Gaza say the Egyptian military has shut the Rafah border crossing. Police arrest Khairat El-Shater, a popular leader from the Muslim Brotherhood.

8 July 2013 – The army fires on pro-Morsi demonstrators outside the Republican guard club during dawn prayers. Killing at least 50 people. One of those killed is a photojournalist.

10 July 2013 – Arrest warrants were issued for Mohammed Badie and other top Muslim Brotherhood officials.

11 July 2013 – The United States puts financial aid to Egypt under review. Public prosecutor freezes the assets of leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood and other anti-coup forces.

13 July 2013 – Criminal investigation of Morsi for “spying, inciting violence and ruining the economy.”

15 July 2013 – Then General, now president, Abdul Fattah al-Sisi speaks on state TV for the first time since the coup.

22 July 2013  – Two die at a pro-Morsi rally as gunmen opened fire on demonstrators. A bomb kills a conscript and injures 15 people at a police station in Mansoura.

24 July 2013 – A bomb explodes at a police station in Mansoura killing at least one person and injuring 17.

26 July 2013 – Responding to a call by General Al-Sisi for a “mandate” to crack down on “terrorism” millions of protesters took part in demonstrations across the country in support of the army. Pro-Morsi protests also took place. Nine people killed in Alexandria. In Sphinx Square in Mohandessin, a group of activists called “The Third Square,” who oppose both the military and the Brotherhood, held their own protest.

27 July 2013 – 82 people killed as security forces open fire on anti-coup protest near the Rabaa Al-Adawiya Mosque.

12 August 2013 -= Numbers swell at the two main anti-coup protest camps in Cairo, in defiance of announcements by authorities that they will be cleared by force.

13 August 2013 – Interim President Adly Mansour appoints 18 new provincial governors, many of them former military officers, all of them considered close to the old regime.

14 August 2013 – The main Rabaa massacre begins. Police forcibly disperse six week old anti-coup encampments. A spokesman for Egypt’s health ministry puts the death toll at 638 people of which 595 are civilians and 43 police. The Muslim Brotherhood puts the death toll at over 2,000, people had been killed in the “massacre.” Among the dead was the daughter of Mohamed el-Beltagy a senior Muslim Brotherhood leader. Four journalists are among those killed. Abdullah Al-Shamy, a journalist for Al Jazeera Arabic is arrested.

15 August 2013 – Islamists attack churches and christian owned businesses across Egypt. The Coptic pope had been a strong supporter of the military. Dozens of police stations also attacked and burned down. Attempts are made to storm provincial governor offices. A fire is started at the finance ministry building in Cairo. A state of Emergency is declared. The interim Interior Minister authorizes the police and military to shoot on sight. At least 100 people are killed.

16 August 2013 – At least 173 anti-coup protesters killed at protests, including Ammar Badie, the son of the Brotherhood’s Supreme Guide Mohammed Badie.

18 August 2013 – 35 prisoners die in the back of a police truck.

19 August 2013 – 25 police killed in attack by Islamist militants in the Sinai Peninsula.

22 August 2013 – Mubarak is removed from jail, and placed under house arrest.

25 August 2013 – Mohamed Soltan is arrested by Egyptian security forces and faces a raft of terror and conspiracy-related charges in connection with his participation in demonstrations against the ouster of President Mohamed Morsi.

1 September 2013 – Students protest against the coup in several universities across Egypt on the first day of classes.

5 September 2013 – A bomb explodes near the convoy of interior minister Mohamed Ibrahim Moustafa, causing one death and 21 injuries, the minister not among them.

19 September 2013 – Police officer killed in Giza. Mass arrests (at least 50) follow.

6 October 2013 – (The 40th anniversary of the start of the 1973 Mideast war with Israel.) At least 57 people killed and nearly 400 injured across Egypt. Cairo neighborhoods, where 48 of the 57 killings took place, are turned into conflict zones.

7 October 2013 – Gunmen attack an Army convoy near the Suez Canal, killing six including an officer and a lieutenant. The attack is synchronized with a suicide bombing at the security headquarters in the Southern Sinai capital of El-Tor, that killed three and injured more than

50 people. Two rocket-propelled grenades hit a major satellite station in the affluent Cairo suburb of Maadi.

13 November 2013 – 12 Al Azhar students are sentenced to 17 years in jail after being arrested during a protest in October of the same year.

15 November 2013 – two teenagers killed in Friday clashes.

19 November 2013 – two die in clashes between pro and anti military crowds.

19 November 2013 – One student is killed during clashes between Al Azhar university students and security forces in the university dorms.
21 November 2013 – Student of Azhar Islamic university killed in clashes with police.

22 November 2013 – At least three people, including one child, killed in clashes following Friday protests.

27 November 2013 – 21 Alexandrian women receive their sentences, for the charges of acts of violence, encroachment on public and private property, and possession of melee weapons. These women were arrested while protesting the coup against former President Mohamed Morsi. 14 are sentenced to 11 years and one month in prison and the remaining 7 were minors who are sentenced to juvenile detention until coming of age to serve in a penitentiary with adults.

13 December 2013 – Two killed in Friday clashes, 14 injured and 54 arrested.

18 December 2013 – Prosecutor General refers imprisoned President Morsi to criminal court on espionage charges. His statement is titled “The Biggest Case of Espionage in the History of Egypt.” It alleges that Morsi, along with Hezbollah and Hamas, has orchestrated violence and unrest in an effort to destroy Egypt for foreign powers. It is one of a number of charges against Morsi, including allegations of inciting violence relating to 2 of the 10 deaths which occurred in fighting outside the presidential palace during his rule (no charges are laid regarding the other 8 – pro-Muslim Brotherhood – people who died in thee clashes). Morsi is also charged with escaping from prison in 2011 during the revolution.

24 December 2013 – Car bomb explodes at security headquarters in Mansoura, killing 14 officers and 2 civilians. Sinai based jihadi group Ansar Bait Al-Maqdis claims responsibility.

25 December 2013 – Muslim Brotherhood, still the largest civilian political network in Egypt, is banned as a terrorist group. The Mansoura bombing is cited as a reason despite the claims of responsibility by Ansar Bait Al-Maqdis, and condemnations from the Brotherhood, who maintain their public calls for non-violent protest.

27 December 2013 – 5 killed and 265 arrested during Friday protests.

29 December 2013 – Four Al Jazeera English journalists Mohammad Fahmy, Peter Greste,  Baher Mohammad and Mohamed Fawzy are arrested on vague charges related to collusion with the Muslim Brotherhood.

2 January 2014 – Mohamed Fawzy is released. The other three journalists from Al Jazeera English, and one from the Arabic channel remain in custody.

3 January 2014 – six months after Morsi’s ouster, 13 people killed in clashes.

10 January 2014 – 4 people killed in Friday clashes, 3 in Suez, 1 in Alexandria.

14 January 2014 – Egyptians vote on new constitutional referendum. 11 people were killed in clashes on the 2014 Egyptian constitutional referendum, the clashes were between supporters and opponents of the constitution.

16 January 2014 – 1 student killed in clashes between students and police officers.

24 January 2014 – Four bombs explode across Cairo, killing six, damaging a major police station and the Islamic Museum of Cairo, located nearby. Ansar Bait al-Maqdis took responsibility for the blasts, but another group called “Soldiers of Egypt” also claims responsibility for one of the blasts. Clashes between protesters and police also lead to the death of 15 people.

25 January 2014 – Egypt’s streets are full with large pro-military anti-Muslim Brotherhood, and Anti-military,Pro-Muslim Brotherhood crowds. Small “third square” protests held by those opposed to both the military and the Muslim Brotherhood are also held. Some 60 plus anti-military protesters, and one from the “third square,” are killed.

26 January 2014 – Military helicopter is brought down in Sinai, Ansar Bait Al-Maqdis claims responsibility.

26 January 2014 – Mohamed Soltan appears for the first time in a court since his arrest and announces hunger strike on the same day after having his detention renewed despite lack of evidence in court to charges against him as encouraging defection army members. http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/egypt-american-on-hunger-strike-in-cairo-prison/2014/05/03/d20fc373-22e2-4186-a30e-b5a614d74a1e_story.html

31 January 2014 – 1 person killed and 35  injured in Friday clashes.

7 February 2014 – 3 people killed in Friday clashes including a teenager, 4 security personnel injured in bomb blast.

14 February 2014 – 2 people killed in Friday clashes, including a 12-year-old boy.

16 February 2014 – A bomb attack, believed to have been carried out Ansar Bait al-Maqdis, kills 3 South Koreans and an Egyptian driver, on a tourist bus on the border crossing with Israel.

7 March 2014 – Saudi Arabia is the first of a number of Gulf countries to declare the Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist organization

19 March 2014 – 5 people killed at protests were held outside universities including a 14 year old.

21 March 2014 – 2 people killed in Friday protests.

24 March 2014 – Egyptian court (in Minya) sentences more than 500 people (either 529 or 528 depending on sources) to death over the murder of a single policeman at an anti-coup rally. Most were tried in absentia.

1 April 2014 – British Prime Minister David Cameron commissions a probe into the Muslim Brotherhood with view to determining if the UK will also declare it a terrorist organization. Many Brotherhood members have fled to the UK following the coup.

8 April 2014 – Army uses dynamite to demolish 22 buildings in the slum area of Dar-el-Salam in Cairo, killing between 4 and 20 children, according to residents’ estimates, contrary to the government report that one child was killed during the operation. http://www.madamasr.com/sections/politics/maadi-demolition-campaign-turns-fatal

9 April 2014 – Egyptian security forces attacked a large number of student protesters across the country.

25 April 2014 – Friday protests across Egypt. Security forces kill at least 2 people.

28 April 2014 – After a review by the Grand Mufti of Azhar, compulsory in all Egyptian death penalty cases, the court changed the sentences to life imprisonment for all 37 of them. On the same day sentenced another 683 people, including the Brotherhood’s Supreme Guide, Mohamad Badie, to death.

16 May 2014 – A video recording of Abdullah Al-Shamy, journalist for Al Jazeera Arabic, recorded on a camera phone and smuggled out of jail appears on YouTube. In the video he states that “if anything happens” to him, people should hold the military regime responsible. Al-Shamy has been on hunger strike since January.

23 May 2014 – Protests broke out in several provinces of Egypt, resulting at least 3 deaths and 23 injuries.

26 May 2014 – Voting opens in presidential elections that pit Coup leader General Sisi against Hamdeen Sabbahi, who identifies with Nasserism. Some international monitors like the Carter Center do not attend, saying the political climate of violence and repression make the vote meaningless.

29 May 2014 – Voting is extended into a third day (having been originally planned to take place over two) in an effort to boost a low turnout. Photos of empty polling booths, and videos apparently showing soldiers filling out multiple ballots, have circulated widely on YouTube. The event is considered an embarrassment for Sisi.

5 June 2014 – Prosecution demands maximum sentence of 15 years for Al Jazeera English journalists accusing them of “selective filming” to unfairly portray a protest in Tahrir Square on June 30, 2013. None of the accused were in Egypt on that date. Mohammad Fahmy shouts from the cage in which the defendants are held saying “everything about this trial is a sham.”

12 June 2014 – Sisi meets British delegation which delivers letter of congratulation from British Prime-Minister David Cameron.

23 June 2014 – An Egyptian judge sentences the three remaining Al Jazeera journalists – Baher Mohamed, Peter Greste and Mohamed Fahmy – to long-term imprisonment  7 years for Greste and Fahmy to and 10 years for Mohamed. The additional three years are for possession of a spent cartridge.

6 July 2014 – Sisi acknowledges the negative impact of the Aljazeera verdicts saying he wishes they had been deported rather than tried.

20 November 2014 – Sisi states during an interview with France 24 that he may pardon Aljazeera journalists, who have been sentenced to 7 years each for Peter Greste and Mohammed Fahmy, and 10 years for Baher Mohammed.

26 September 2014 – President Obama and Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott personally raise issue of Peter Greste’s release with Sisi during the United Nations General Assembly in New York.

24 October 2014 – Deadly attack in Sinai Peninsula kills 31 military personnel, one of the deadliest attacks in its history.

25 October 2014 – El Sisi attends the funeral for 31 killed in militant attacks a day earlier

29 October 2014 – The Egyptian army begins demolishing hundreds of houses in the border town Rafah to create a buffer zone along the border with Gaza, promising residents that each family is to be compensated for their lost home with $125 for the first 3 months until further calculations have been made.

10 November 2014 – Ansar Bayt Al-Maqdis pledged allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant forming the “State of Sinai” group

14 November 2014 – ISIL published a video online that included footage of Ansar Bayt Al-Maqdis carrying out the October 2014 attacks.

29 November 2014 – Court drops criminal charges of the killing of protesters against former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.

30 November 2014 – Student protests break out, during which 2 people died,  against the court’s decision to dismiss charges of murdering protesters that were previously brought against former president Hosni Mubarak.

13 January 2015 – Court overturns the only remaining conviction against former president Hosni Mubarak.

22 January 2015 – Sisi speaks at the 45th World Economic Forum Annual Meeting, saying on the terrorist attack that happened with Charlie Hebdo, that the struggle in one and the same terror threatens us to impose its views, as it sees in all of us its rival, without discrimination to race or religion.

23 January 2015 – Sondos Abu Bakr, an Egyptian 17 year old student was killed during anti-coup demonstrations in Alexandria.

24 January 2015 – Shaimaa El Sabbagh, an Egyptian female activist was killed during protests in downtown Cairo.

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Keywords: Egypt, Jan25, Morsi, Revolution, Sisi
Categories: AGM25Jan2015